GATE CSE
First time here? Checkout the FAQ!
x
0 votes
148 views

Suppose that $f(x)$ is a continuous function such that $0.4 \leq f(x) \leq 0.6$ for $0 \leq x \leq 1$. Which of the following is always true?

  1. $f(0.5) = 0.5$.
  2. There exists $x$ between $0$ and $1$ such that $f(x) = 0.8x$.
  3. There exists $x$ between $0$ and $0.5$ such that $f(x) = x$.
  4. $f(0.5) > 0.5$.
  5. None of the above statements are always true.
asked in Calculus by Veteran (30.4k points)   | 148 views

2 Answers

+3 votes

This is a repeating question on continuity. Let me solve it a non-standard way -- which should be useful in GATE.

From the question $f$ is a function mapping the set of real (or rational) numbers between [0,1] to [0.4,0.6]. So, clearly the co-domain here is smaller than the domain set. The function is not given as onto and so, there is no requirement that all elements in co-domain set be mapped to by the domain set. We are half done now. Lets see the options:

A. $f(0.5) = 0.5$. False, as we can have $f(0.5) = 0.4$, continuity does not imply anything other than all points being mapped being continuous.

C. Again false, we can have $f(x) = 0.6$ for all $x$.

D. False, same reason as for A.

Only B option left- which needs to be proved as correct now since we also have E option. We know that for a function all elements in domain set must have a mapping. All these can map to either 1 or more elements but at least one element must be there in the range set. i.e., $f(x) = y$ is true for some $y$ which is in $[0.4, 0.6]$. In the minimal case this is a single element say $c$. Now for $x = 1/0.8$, option B is true. In the other case, say the minimal value of $f(x) = a$ and the maximum value be $f(x) = b$. Now,

as per Intermediate Value theorem (see: https://www.math.ucdavis.edu/~hunter/intro_analysis_pdf/ch7.pdf),  all points between $a$ and $b$ are also in the range set as $f$ is continuous. Now, we need to consider $x$ in the range $[0.5, 0.75]$ as then only $f(x)$ can be $0.8 x$ and be in $[0.4, 0.6]$. In our case we have

$f(x_1)   = a, f(x_2) = b$. Lets assume $a != 0.8x_1$ and $b!=0.8x_2$. Now, for all other points in $[0.5, 0.75]$, $f(x)$ must be between $a$ and $b$ and all points between $a$ and $b$ must be mapped by some $x$. 

Moreover, for $x =0.5$, $f(x) \geq 0.4$ aand for $x=0.75$, $f(x) \leq 0.6$. So, if we plot $g(x) = 0.8x$, this line should cross $f(x)$ at some point between $0.5$ and $0.75$ because at $x= 0.5$, $f(x)$ must be above or equal to the line $0.8x$ (shown below) and for $x = 0.75$ it must be below or equal which means an intersection must be there.

 

This shows there exist some $x$ between $0.5$ and $0.75$ for which $f(x) = 0.8x$ a stronger case than option B. So, B option is true. Now please try for $f(x) = 0.9x$ and see if it is true.

answered by Veteran (288k points)  
@Arjun Sir why u took range in between $[0.5,0.75]$, means here told x can be in between $[0,1]$.
I did not take that range-- but that is the range within which 0.8x can be within 0.4 and 0.6 and hence the intersection point 'x' must be within 0.5-0.75.
0 votes

(A) f(0.5)=0.5, we cannot say here f(x) value always trueBecause we need to know f(x) value between

0.4≤ f(x) ≤ 0.6, and here we are getting f(x) value when x=0.5

(C)Here we know f(x) value between 0 to 0.5. But when f(x)=0.6 , x value may be ≥1

(D) Here also we cannot predict f(x) value when 0.4≤ f(x) ≤ 0.6 

f(0.5)>0.5 is an inequality. So, we cannot get any exact value of x

Now for (B) Here we can see the f(x) value 0.4≤ f(x) ≤ 0.6 when x  between 0 to 1

for eg: f(0.5)=0.4, where x value is 0.5

            f(0.6)=0.48,where x value is 0.6

            f(0.7)=0.56 , where x value is 0.7

here we are only concern about f(x) is between 0.4 and 0.6.

so, here value of x always between 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 when 0.4≤ f(x) ≤ 0.6

So, answer will be (B)

answered by Veteran (55.6k points)  
you haven't proved the existence of such an $x$.
then whats the answer sir ? @ Arjun
option B is correct only, I have given answer now.


Top Users Jul 2017
  1. Bikram

    4910 Points

  2. manu00x

    2940 Points

  3. Debashish Deka

    1870 Points

  4. joshi_nitish

    1776 Points

  5. Arjun

    1506 Points

  6. Hemant Parihar

    1306 Points

  7. Shubhanshu

    1128 Points

  8. pawan kumarln

    1124 Points

  9. Arnab Bhadra

    1114 Points

  10. Ahwan

    956 Points


24,099 questions
31,074 answers
70,703 comments
29,407 users