GATE CSE
First time here? Checkout the FAQ!
x
+1 vote
122 views

In the following, $A$ stands fors a set of apples, and $S(x, y)$ stands for "$x$ is sweeter than $y$. Let

$$\Psi \equiv \exists x : x \in A$$

$$\Phi \equiv \forall x \in A : \exists y \in A : S(x, y).$$

Which of the following statements implies that there are infinitely many apples (i.e.,, $A$ is an inifinite set)?

  1. $\Psi \wedge \Phi \wedge [\forall x \in A : \neg S(x, x)]$
  2. $\Psi \wedge \Phi \wedge [\forall x \in A : S(x, x)]$
  3. $\Psi \wedge \Phi \wedge [\forall x,y \in A : S(x, x) \wedge S(x, y) \rightarrow S(y,y)]$
  4. $\Psi \wedge \Phi \wedge [\forall x \in A : \neg S(x, x)] \wedge [\forall x, y, z \in A : S(x, y) \wedge S(y, z) \rightarrow s(y, x)]$
  5. $\Psi \wedge \Phi \wedge [\forall x \in A : \neg S(x, x)] \wedge [\forall x, y, z \in A : S(x, y) \wedge S(y, z) \rightarrow s(x, z)]$
asked in Mathematical Logic by Veteran (73.2k points)   | 122 views

1 Answer

+1 vote

$\Psi$ is the set containing at least one apple. $\Phi$ is the set containing all apples which are sweeter than at least one apple. 
Now,
(A) - Set of some apples such that they are sweeter than some apples and no Apple is sweeter than itself. Whether A is finite or infinite this statement always gives such apples therefore, this statement does not necessarily imply A is infinite. 

(B) - Set of some apples such that they are sweeter than some & itself. Whether A is finite or infinite this set is allways null as no Apple can be sweeter than itself. Therefore this statement doesn't imply A is infinite. 

(C)- Same as above with little variations.

(D)-  This statement also gives empty set whether A is finite or infinite due to given implication therefore this statement doesn't imply A is infinite. 

(E)- Set of some apples such that they are sweeter than some apples & no Apple among them is sweet than itself BUT every Apple among them is sweeter than some other apple. Now, if A is finite this statement is bound to give empty set since if A is finite we always can arrange Apples in order of their increasing degree of sweetnes & first apple can't have property "sweeter than some apple". But if A is infinite & that too unbounded set $(-\infty,+\infty)$(regarding degree of sweetnes) we can always have some Apples sweeter than others. Therefore they can have property "every apples among them can be sweeter than any other apple". Now considering this statement to be not null, statement will imply A is infinite. 

Therefore I think E is the answer. Lemme know if I'm wrong.

answered by Loyal (3k points)  
edited by
How can output of A be finite. Every apple should have an apple other than itself which is less sweet than it. So if A is finite as you are saying is possible, then how would that condition hold for least sweet apple?
Let A = { 1,2,3} , numbers denoting degree of sweetness. ∅ = { 2,3}

(A) can state about this set as well -

{1,2,3} ^ {2,3} ^ Universe = { 2,3} .
Okk...now what E is adding to that example?
Yes. You're right. I think somewhere is mistake. Let me think on this. Thank you for providing a loophole.
Sure.
Please let me know when you come up with an answer. :)
Top Users Jan 2017
  1. Debashish Deka

    7172 Points

  2. Habibkhan

    4696 Points

  3. Vijay Thakur

    4308 Points

  4. sudsho

    4090 Points

  5. saurabh rai

    4024 Points

  6. Arjun

    3292 Points

  7. santhoshdevulapally

    3066 Points

  8. GateSet

    3016 Points

  9. Bikram

    3014 Points

  10. Sushant Gokhale

    2892 Points

Monthly Topper: Rs. 500 gift card

18,838 questions
23,808 answers
51,589 comments
20,148 users