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Participation Constraints can not be represented for

a. Unary relationships

b. Binary relationships

c. Ternary relationships

d. None
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a) unary relationship.
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@ntitsh

i think , answer  should be option d)none
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participation constraint are of two type : 1) total 2)partial , there is no relationship between type of relationship and participation types . it depends upon cardinality :

1. Minimum Cardinality = 0, for partial participation and equal to 1 for
total participation.

2. Minimum Cardinality give partial or total participation.

for unary relationship we do not have to represent participation constraints

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