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1 vote
As I understand from references :-

start with positive site

but  1 means high to low

and 0 means low to high  

low is 0 and high is 1

and when there is found of 0 inverse the next bits.

is it right?
in Computer Networks
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the comma is the tag separator here, so please do not add tags like this.
I don't know what is happened . I dragged  and dropped tag .
Take care this in future.

2 Answers

1 vote

I think this helps u.

cannot get can u explain it ...buddy
High means 1 and low means 0.As above 0 and 1  are represented  by two ways  in wave form .
Not getting it well

can u draw differential manchestor for


We can represent Low voltage in two ways and high voltage in two ways as above .

So we draw two waveform for any data... 

k got it

query: I do not get why you have draw two different encoding here in your first answer for differential manchester encoding while  I know it is unambiguous.
and u draw 4 encoding schema for 2 bits .
Can u tell in which corresponds which we use?

0 is represented by 

1 is represented by

So I draw two encoding scheme.

buddy i want to know why there is two different ones for this?

and 0 has two representation and similarly for 1

can u explain how are u drawing the digital signal in above ones and in which condition we should use which one?
in differential manchester encoding  if next bit same as current bit we will not invert .

if it is different then we will invert the waveform.
0 votes

See, there are 2 standards .

Forouzan  along with  William stallings book follow IEEE standards . Where Tanenbaum book follows G. E. Thomas standard .

It is just the convention which determine the correct answer.

 see this from IIT KGP, they follow IEEE standard -

 and this one from IITB , they follow G E Thomas version --

and we generally follow IEEE standards.

see this gate question


In IEEE standard  '1' is represented by low-to-high and '0' represented by high-to-low .

And according to G.E. Thomas' convention   '1' by high-to-low transition     and   '0' is expressed by a low-to-high transition .

sir what about the integral manchester encoding . is it same in Mr. Thomas and IEEE format?

@hem chandra

Read that gate question link , read 2 answers and all comments, i assure your all doubts related to differential Manchester will get cleared. 

and there is no term as Integral Manchester, It was just put there in question to confuse students.


There is no such topic and term like Integral Manchester encoding  . They put this into Gate question to confuse students.

For understanding differential manchester encoding see this thread and clealrly understand 2 given diagrams :

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