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+26 votes

Let $P$ be quicksort program to sort numbers in ascending order using the first element as the pivot. Let $t_1$ and $t_2$ be the number of comparisons made by P for the inputs $[1 \ 2 \ 3 \ 4 \ 5]$ and $[4 \ 1 \ 5 \ 3 \ 2]$ respectively. Which one of the following holds?

- $t_1 = 5$
- $t_1 < t_2$
- $t_1>t_2$
- $t_1 = t_2$

+33 votes

Best answer

it would be $t_1>t_2$, because the first case is the worst case of quicksort i.e. minimum number is chosen as pivot. Hence in the worst case the comparisons are high.

The splitting occurs as

$[1] [2345]$

$[2] [345]$

$[3] [45]$

$[4] [5]$

and

$[123] [45]$

$[1] [23] [4][5]$

$[2] [3]$

Number of recursive calls remain the same, but in second case the number of elements passed for the recursive call is less and hence the number of comparisons also less.

The splitting occurs as

$[1] [2345]$

$[2] [345]$

$[3] [45]$

$[4] [5]$

and

$[123] [45]$

$[1] [23] [4][5]$

$[2] [3]$

Number of recursive calls remain the same, but in second case the number of elements passed for the recursive call is less and hence the number of comparisons also less.

+23

Total number of comparisons made by **partition **algorithm for input array of size $n = n+1$

(See 2nd page here http://homepages.math.uic.edu/~leon/cs-mcs401-s08/handouts/quicksort.pdf)

[12345] 6

[1] [2345] 5

[2] [345] 4

[3] [45] 3

[4] [5]

Total = 6+5+4+3 = 18

[12345] 6

[123] [45] 4+3

[1] [23] [4][5] 3

[2] [3]

total = 6+4+3+3 = 16

Hence $t_1 \gt t_2$

+2

How does the splitting take place this way? For the ist case u hv taken elements less than or equal to pivot in left list and elements greater than pivot in right list and in 2nd case less than pivot in left list and elements greater or equal to pivot in right list ?

0

#Edit #Suggestion

Correct me if i am wrong .?

@Sachin Mittal 1 Sir in your explanatory comment ,

[1] in the 2nd case do you mean to say $[4 1 5 3 2] instead of [1 2 3 4 5]$ ..????

[2] Minor mistake in calculation in case 2 , the calculation comes out to be 16 instead of 14.

@Arjun Sir plz have a look at this and also

other @Admins can edit that comment and delete this comment. (after proper action)

+19 votes

Question is asking about number of comparisons.

First case [1 2 3 4 5]

**1** [2 3 4 5] -> 4 comparisons

**2** [3 4 5] -> 3 comparisons

**3** [4 5] -> 2 comparisons

**4 **[5] -> 1 comparison

Second case [4 1 5 3 2]

**4 **[1 3 2] [5] -> 4 comparisons

**1 **[3 2] -> 2 comparisons

3 [2] -> 1 comparison

Hence, in second case number of comparisons is less. => t1 > t2.

+11 votes

We dont even need to compare the number of comparisions we know that Quick sort gives worst result

list is already sorted ascending or decending and when all element are equal it has time complexity of O($n^{2}$)

in rest cases it is O($nlogn$) hence t1>t2

list is already sorted ascending or decending and when all element are equal it has time complexity of O($n^{2}$)

in rest cases it is O($nlogn$) hence t1>t2

+3 votes

When first element or last element is chosen as pivot, Quick Sort's worst case occurs for the sorted arrays. In every step of quick sort, numbers are divided as per the following recurrence. T(n) = T(n-1) + O(n)

So, t1>t2

–3 votes

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