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The CPU of a system having an execution rate of 1 million instructions per second needs 4 machine cycles on an average for executing an instruction. On an average, 50% of the cycles use memory bus. For execution of the programs, the system utilizes 90% of the CPU time. For block data transfer, an I/O device is attached to the system, while the CPU executes background programs continuously. Determine the maximum I/O transfer rate for each of the two cases: (a) programmed I/O, (b) cycle-stealing DMA (in transparent mode). You may assume that transferring one byte involves 4 operations: in-status, check-status, branch and read/write in memory, each requiring one machine cycle.
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