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An IP packet to be transmitted by Ethernet is 60 bytes long, including all its headers.
If LLC is not in use, is padding needed in the Ethernet frame, and if so, how many
bytes?
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The minimum Ethernet frame is 64 bytes, including both addresses in the Ethernet frame header, the type/length field, and the checksum. Since the header fields occupy 18 bytes and the packet is 60 bytes, the total frame size is 78 bytes, which exceeds the 64-byte minimum. Therefore, no padding is used.

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