A datagram network allows routers to drop packets whenever they need to. The
probability of a router discarding a packet is p. Consider the case of a source host
connected to the source router, which is connected to the destination router, and then
to the destination host. If either of the routers discards a packet, the source host eventually
times out and tries again. If both host-router and router-router lines are counted
as hops, what is the mean number of
(a) hops a packet makes per transmission?
(b) transmissions a packet makes?
(c) hops required per received packet?