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What are the five layers in the Internet protocol stack? What are the principal responsibilities of each of these layers?
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The five layers in the Internet protocol stack with their responsibilities are:

1)Application Layer-It enables the user to access the network. It provides user interfaces and support for services such as e-mail, shared database management and other types of distributed information services.

2)Transport Layer-It establishes the connection between applications running on different hosts. It uses TCP for reliable connections and UDP for fast connections. It keeps track of the processes running in the applications above it by assigning port numbers to them and uses the Network layer to access the TCP/IP network.

3)Network Layer-It is responsible for creating the packets that move across the network.It also addresses messages and translates logical addresses (i.e., IP addresses) into physical addresses. 

4)Data Link Layer-It is responsible for creating the frames that move across the network. It is also responsible for logical link control, media access control, hardware addressing, error detection and handling and defining physical layer standards. It provides reliable data transfer by transmitting packets with the necessary synchronization, error control and flow control.

5)Physical Layer- It is responsible for transmitting the actual signals across physical media as bits.The other functions are exchanging frames, controlling media access, and performing error detection.

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