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Let $M_{1}$ and $M_{2}$ be $\text{DFA's}$ that have $k_{1}$ and $k_{2}$ states, respectively, and then let $U = L(M_{1})\cup L(M_{2}).$

- Show that if $U\neq\phi$ then $U$ contains some string $s,$ where $|s| < max(k1, k2).$
- Show that if $U\neq\sum^{*},$ then $U$ excludes some string $s,$ where $|s| < k1k2.$

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