# Ullman (Compiler Design) Edition 2 Exercise 3.3 Question 4 (Page No. 125)

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Most languages are case sensitive, so keywords can be written only one way, and the regular expressions describing their lexeme is very simple. However, some languages, like SQL, are case insensitive, so a keyword can be written either in lowercase or in uppercase, or in any mixture of cases. Thus, the SQL keyword SELECT can also be written select, Select, or sElEcT, for instance. Show how to write a regular expression for a keyword in a case-insensitive language.  Illustrate the idea by writing the expression for "select" in SQL.

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1
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Describe the languages denoted by the following regular expressions: $a(a\mid b)^{\ast}a.$ $((\epsilon\mid a)b^{\ast})^{\ast}.$ $(a\mid b)^{\ast}a(a\mid b)(a\mid b).$ $a^{\ast}ba^{\ast}ba^{\ast}ba^{\ast}.$ $(aa\mid bb)^{\ast}((ab\mid ba)(aa\mid bb)^{\ast}(ab\mid ba)(aa\mid bb)^{\ast})^{\ast}.$
2
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Repeat Exercise 4.3.1 on the following grammars: $S\rightarrow SS+\mid SS\: \ast\mid a$ $S\rightarrow 0S1\mid 01$ $S\rightarrow S ( S ) S\mid \epsilon$ $S\rightarrow (L)\mid a$ and $L\rightarrow L,S\mid S$ ... $bterm\rightarrow bterm\:and\:bfactor\mid bfactor$ $bfactor\rightarrow not\: bfactor\mid ( bexpr )\mid true \mid false$
3
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The following is a grammar for regular expressions over symbols $a$ and $b$ only, using $+$ in place of $\mid$ for union, to avoid conflict with the use of vertical bar as a metasymbol in grammars: $rexpr\rightarrow rexpr+rterm\mid rterm$ ... -down parsing? In addition to left factoring, eliminate left recursion from the original grammar. Is the resulting grammar suitable for top-down parsing?