Suppose we take $n = 7$ and $d = 2 $
n=7 //First iteration of while loop
{
x=1,
n = 7//2 = 2
}
n=2 //Second iteration of while loop
{
x=2 ,
n = 2//2 = 1
}
n=1 // Third iteration of while loop
{
x=3 , n=1//2 = 0.
}
// while loop terminates.
Returns value of $x$ which is $3$
Suppose we have set S ={ 1,2,3,4,5,6,7} , n=7 , d=2.
We can choose $2$ elements in $\frac{7*6}{2*1}= 21$ So option $A$ is incorrect.
We can rearrange any two elements from the set S by only $1$ way i.e by swapping them so Option $B$ is also incorrect.
We can partition these $7$ elements into group of $2$ elements in more than $4$ ways so option $D$ is also incorrect.
Hence option $C$ is the correct choice.
As we can see from the program execution it is just counting the number of divisions that we perform when we convert an decimal to a base $d$ number system and storing that value in $x$.
like suppose we need to convert $7$ into base $2$ number system. so we do $3$ divisions as follows.
2| 7 | 1
2| 3 | 1
2| 1 | 1
0
Hence option $C$ is the correct choice.