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________ predicate calculus allows quantified variables to refer to objects in the domain of discourse and not to predicates or functions.

- Zero-order
- First-order
- Second-order
- High-order

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Answer : First Order

Reference : First Order Predicate Calculus Example and Explanation is Here

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Ans is B

**First-order logic** is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. It is also known as **first-order predicate calculus**, the**lower predicate calculus**, **quantification theory**, and **predicate logic**. First-order logic uses quantified variables over (non-logical) objects. It allows the use of sentences that contain variables, so that rather than propositions such as *Socrates is a man* one can have expressions in the form *X is a man* where X is a variable.^{[1]} This distinguishes it frompropositional logic, which does not use quantifiers.

A theory about a topic is usually a first-order logic together with a specified domain of discourse over which the quantified variables range, finitely many functions from that domain to itself, finitely many predicates defined on that domain, and a set of axioms believed to hold for those things. Sometimes "theory" is understood in a more formal sense, which is just a set of sentences in first-order logic.

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