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An attacker sits between customer and banker  and captures the information from the customer and retransmits  to the banker by altering the information . This attack is called as

  1. Masquerade  attack
  2. Replay attack
  3. Passive attack
  4. Denial of service attack
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Replay attack: An attacker spies the communication  between sender and receiver and retransmits the information later. Perfect example is question itself. An attacker sits between customer and banker  and captures the information from the customer and retransmits  to the banker by altering the information .

Masquerade attack: Attacker uses a fake identity to gain unauthorized access to the system. Attacker steals password of  Hrithik Roshan's mail ID and sends fake mails to Kangana Ranaut.  For receiver (Kangana) , the mails seems to be legitimate as it come from valid mail ID.

Passive attack: Attacker monitors the target system for its vulnerabilities. (eg:open ports).  The purpose is solely to gain information about the target and no data is changed on the target.

Eg: Stealing Neighbour's Wifi if it is not password protected.

Denial of service attack: Attacker sends a lot of requests to the target system so that it will be overloaded and will not be available for legitimate users.

Eg; Attacker sends a large number of connection requests to the server. Server will be hanged by serving each request and allocating resources. No other client can connect with the server for a period of time.

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shiva it would be better if u have explained with example..
@Tauhin: i could recollect these examples only right now. there would be better examples!!

these are very good examples..shiva keep it upyes

thank u
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A masquerade takes place when one entity pretends to be a different entity. A masquerade attack usually includes one of the other forms of active attack. For example,authentication sequences can be captured and replayed after a valid authentication sequence has taken place, thus enabling an authorized entity with few privileges to obtain extra privileges by impersonating an entity that has those privileges.

Replay involves the passive capture of a data unit and its subsequent retransmission to produce an unauthorized effect.

Passive attacks are very difficult to detect, because they do not involve any alteration of the data.Typically,the message traffic is sent and received in an apparently normal fashion,and neither the sender nor receiver is aware that a third party has read the messages or observed the traffic pattern.However,it is feasible to prevent the success of these attacks,usually by means of encryption.Thus,the emphasis in dealing with passive attacks is on prevention rather than detection.

The denial of service prevents or inhibits the normal use or management of communications facilities.This attack may have a specific target; for example, an entity may suppress all messages directed to a particular destination (e.g.,the security audit service).Another form of service denial is the disruption of an entire network,either by disabling the network or by overloading it with messages so as to degrade performance.

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