Consider a system with a virtual address size of 64MB (2^26), a physical memory of size 2GB (2^31), and a page size of 1K (2^10). Under the target workload, 32 processes (2^5) are running; half of the processes are smaller than 8K (2^13) and half use the full 64MB virtual address space. Each page has 4 control bits.
What is the size of a single top-level page table entry (and why)?
What is the size of a single bottom-level page table entry (and why)?
Compute the total space overhead for the entire system.