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Which of the following is used for the boundary representation of an image object?

  1. Quad Tree
  2. Projections
  3. Run length coding
  4. Chain codes
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ans should be D chain codes

chain code is a lossless compression algorithm for monochrome images. The basic principle of chain codes is to separately encode each connected component, or "blob", in the image.

For each such region, a point on the boundary is selected and its coordinates are transmitted. The encoder then moves along the boundary of the region and, at each step, transmits a symbol representing the direction of this movement.

This continues until the encoder returns to the starting position, at which point the blob has been completely described, and encoding continues with the next blob in the image.

This encoding method is particularly effective for images consisting of a reasonably small number of large connected components.

Run-length encoding (RLE) is a very simple form of lossless data compression in which runs of data (that is, sequences in which the same data value occurs in many consecutive data elements) are stored as a single data value and count, rather than as the original run. This is most useful on data that contains many such runs. Consider, for example, simple graphic images such as icons, line drawings, and animations. It is not useful with files that don't have many runs as it could greatly increase the file size.

quadtree is a tree data structure in which each internal node has exactly four children. Quadtrees are most often used to partition a two-dimensional space by recursively subdividing it into four quadrants or regions. The regions may be square or rectangular, or may have arbitrary shapes. This data structure was named a quadtree by Raphael Finkel and J.L. Bentley in 1974. A similar partitioning is also known as a Q-tree. All forms of quadtrees share some common features:

  • They decompose space into adaptable cells
  • Each cell (or bucket) has a maximum capacity. When maximum capacity is reached, the bucket splits
  • The tree directory follows the spatial decomposition of the quadtree                 
  • 3D projection is any method of mapping three-dimensional points to a two-dimensional plane. As most current methods for displaying graphical data are based on planar (pixel information from several bitplanes) two-dimensional media, the use of this type of projection is widespread, especially in computer graphics, engineering and drafting.
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