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2 votes

Top-down design does not require

  1. Step-wise refinement
  2. Loop invariants
  3. Flow charting
  4. Modularity
in IS&Software Engineering
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ANS is  B  it require stepwise refinement, flow charting and modules it has nothing to do with loop invariants

A top-down approach (also known as stepwise design) is essentially the breaking down of a system to gain insight into the sub-systems that make it up. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is formulated, specifying but not detailing any first-level subsystems. Each subsystem is then refined in yet greater detail, sometimes in many additional subsystem levels, until the entire specification is reduced to base elements. Once these base elements are recognised then we can build these as computer modules. Once they are built we can put them together, making the entire system from these individual components.

loop invariant is a condition [among program variables] that is necessarily true immediately before and immediately after each iteration of a loop. (Note that this says nothing about its truth or falsity part way through an iteration.)

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