I am having the same doubt.
if (q[p[i]] ≠ i)
will always execute, because if set(i) is not called then p[i] ≠ count(any) and for then same count q[count] ≠ i. So if statement will be true and will return false.
may be p contains 5 as garbage value and q also contains 5.So the statement can become false.We cannot assume what garbage can contains and what it cannot contain as assumed in answer.
I think the first if will always be true.
if (p[i] ≤ 0 or p[i] > count)
If p[i] is <=0 then first condition is true and if is true. If p[i]>0 ,then we know count is zero and hence second condition will be true.SO whatever p[i] may contain it will always enter in this if and return false.Please correct me if wrong