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Concept of layering. LAN technologies (Ethernet).Flow and error control techniques, Swithing. IPv4/ IPv6, Routers and routing algorithms (distance vector, link state). TCP/UDP and Sockets, Congestion control. Application layer protocols (DNS, SMTP, POP, FTP, HTTP). Basics of Wi-Fi. Network security: authentication, basics of public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, Firewalls.

$$\small{\overset{{\large{\textbf{Mark Distribution in Previous GATE}}}}{\begin{array}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|}\hline

\textbf{Year}&\textbf{2019}&\textbf{2018}&\textbf{2017-1}&\textbf{2017-2}&\textbf{2016-1}&\textbf{2016-2}&\textbf{Minimum}&\textbf{Average}&\textbf{Maximum}

\\\hline\textbf{1 Mark Count}&1&3&2&3&2&3&1&2.3&3

\\\hline\textbf{2 Marks Count}&4&2&3&1&4&3&1&2.8&4

\\\hline\textbf{Total Marks}&9&7&8&5&10&9&\bf{5}&\bf{8}&\bf{10}\\\hline

\end{array}}}$$