# Recent questions in Engineering Mathematics 1
How many comparisons are needed for a binary search in a set of $64$ elements?
1 vote
2
Prove Theorem $6:$Suppose that $\{a_{n}\}$ satisfies the liner nonhomogeneous recurrence relation $a_{n} = c_{1}a_{n-1} + c_{2}a_{n-2} + \dots + c_{k}a_{n-k} + F(n),$ where $c_{1}.c_{2},\dots,c_{k}$ ... is $m,$ there is a particular solution of the form $n^{m}(p_{t}n^{t} + p_{t-1}n^{t-1} + \dots + p_{1}n + p_{0})s^{n}.$
3
Prove Theorem $4:$ Let $c_{1},c_{2},\dots,c_{k}$ be real numbers. Suppose that the characteristic equation $r^{k}-c_{1}r^{k-1}-\dots c_{k} = 0$ has $t$ distinct roots $r_{1},r_{2},\dots,r_{t}$ with multiplicities $m_{1},m_{2},\dots,m_{t},$ ... $\alpha_{i,j}$ are constants for $1 \leq i \leq t\:\text{and}\: 0 \leq j \leq m_{i} - 1.$
4
Solve the recurrence relation $T (n) = nT^{2}(n/2)$ with initial condition $T (1) = 6$ when $n = 2^{k}$ for some integer $k.$ [Hint: Let $n = 2^{k}$ and then make the substitution $a_{k} = \log T (2^{k})$ to obtain a linear nonhomogeneous recurrence relation.]
5
It can be shown that Cn, the average number of comparisons made by the quick sort algorithm (described in preamble to question $50$ in exercise $5.4),$ when sorting $n$ ... $48$ to solve the recurrence relation in part $(A)$ to find an explicit formula for $C_{n}.$
6
Use question $48$ to solve the recurrence relation $(n + 1)a_{n} = (n + 3)a_{n-1} + n, \:\text{for}\: n \geq 1, \:\text{with}\: a_{0} = 1$
7
Some linear recurrence relations that do not have constant coefficients can be systematically solved. This is the case for recurrence relations of the form $f (n)a_{n} = g(n)a_{n-1} + h(n).$ Exercises $48-50$ ... relation to obtain $a_{n} = \dfrac{C +\displaystyle{} \sum_{i = 1}^{n}Q(i)h(i)}{g(n + 1)Q(n + 1)}$
8
A new employee at an exciting new software company starts with a salary of $\$50,000$and is promised that at the end of each year her salary will be double her salary of the previous year, with an extra increment of$\$10,000$ for each year she has been with the ... $n^{\text{th}}$ year of employment. Solve this recurrence relation to find her salary for her $n^{\text{th}}$ year of employment.
9
Suppose that there are two goats on an island initially.The number of goats on the island doubles every year by natural reproduction, and some goats are either added or removed each year. Construct a recurrence relation for the number of goats on the island at the start of the ... $n^{\text{th}}$ year for each $n \geq 3.$
10
Suppose that each pair of a genetically engineered species of rabbits left on an island produces two new pairs of rabbits at the age of $1$ month and six new pairs of rabbits at the age of $2$ months and every month afterward. None of the rabbits ever die or leave ... relation in $(A)$ determine the number of pairs of rabbits on the island $n$ months after one pair is left on the island.
11
(Linear algebra required ) Let $A_{n}$ be the $n \times n$ matrix with $2s$ on its main diagonal, $1s$ in all positions next to a diagonal element, and $0s$ everywhere else. Find a recurrence relation for $d_{n},$ the determinant of $A_{n}.$ Solve this recurrence relation to find a formula for $d_{n}.$
12
Express the solution of the linear nonhomogenous recurrence relation $a_{n} = a_{n-1} + a_{n-2} + 1\:\text{for}\: n \geq 2 \:\text{where}\: a_{0} = 0\:\text{and}\: a_{1} = 1$ in terms of the Fibonacci numbers. [Hint: Let $b_{n} = a_{n + 1}$ and apply question $42$ to the sequence $b_{n}.]$
13
Show that if $a_{n} = a_{n-1} + a_{n-2}, a_{0} = s\:\text{and}\: a_{1} = t,$ where $s$ and $t$ are constants, then $a_{n} = sf_{n-1} + tf_{n}$ for all positive integers $n.$
14
Use the formula found in Example $4$ for $f_{n},$ the $n^{\text{th}}$ Fibonacci number, to show that fn is the integer closest to $\dfrac{1}{\sqrt{5}}\left(\dfrac{1 + \sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^{n}$ Determine for which $n\: f_{n}$ ... $n\: f_{n}$ is less than $\dfrac{1}{\sqrt{5}}\left(\dfrac{1 + \sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^{n}.$
15
Solve the simultaneous recurrence relations $a_{n} = 3a_{n-1} + 2b_{n-1}$ $b_{n} = a_{n-1} + 2b_{n-1}$ with $a_{0} = 1 \: \text{and}\: b_{0} = 2.$
16
a) Find the characteristic roots of the linear homogeneous recurrence relation $a_{n} = a_{n-4}.$ [Note: These include complex numbers.] Find the solution of the recurrence relation in part $(A)$ with $a_{0} = 1, a_{1} = 0, a_{2} = -1,\: \text{and}\: a_{3} = 1.$
17
Find the characteristic roots of the linear homogeneous recurrence relation $a_{n} = 2a_{n-1} - 2a_{n-2}.$ [Note: These are complex numbers.] Find the solution of the recurrence relation in part $(A)$ with $a_{0} = 1\:\text{and}\: a_{1} = 2.$
Let an be the sum of the first $n$ triangular numbers, that is, $a_{n} = \displaystyle{}\sum_{k = 1}^{n} t_{k},\:\text{where}\: t_{k} = k(k + 1)/2.$ Show that $\{an\}$ satisfies the linear nonhomogeneous recurrence relation $a_{n} = a_{n-1} + n(n + 1)/2$ and the initial condition $a_{1} = 1.$ Use Theorem $6$ to determine a formula for $a_{n}$ by solving this recurrence relation.
Let an be the sum of the first $n$ perfect squares, that is, $a_{n} = \displaystyle{}\sum_{k = 1}^{n} k^{2}.$ Show that the sequence $\{a_{n}\}$ satisfies the linear nonhomogeneous recurrence relation $a_{n} = a_{n-1} + n^{2}$ and the initial condition $a_{1} = 1.$ Use Theorem $6$ to determine a formula for $a_{n}$ by solving this recurrence relation.
Find the solution of the recurrence relation $a_{n} = 4a_{n-1} - 3a_{n-2} + 2^{n} + n + 3\:\text{with}\: a_{0} = 1\:\text{and}\: a_{1} = 4.$