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ER‐model. Relational model:Relational algebra, Tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, Normal forms. File organization, Indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.

$$\scriptsize{\overset{{\large{\textbf{Mark Distribution in Previous GATE}}}}{\begin{array}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|}\hline

\textbf{Year}& \textbf{2022} & \textbf{2021-1}&\textbf{2021-2}&\textbf{2020}&\textbf{2019}&\textbf{2018}&\textbf{2017-1}&\textbf{2017-2}&\textbf{2016-1}&\textbf{2016-2}&\textbf{Minimum}&\textbf{Average}&\textbf{Maximum}

\\\hline\textbf{1 Mark Count} & 3 &2&1&2&2&2&2&2&3&2&1&2.1&3

\\\hline\textbf{2 Marks Count} & 2&3&3&3&3&2&3&3&1&2&1&2.5&3

\\\hline\textbf{Total Marks} & 7 &8&7&8&8&6&8&8&5&6&\bf{6}&\bf{7.1}&\bf{8}\\\hline

\end{array}}}$$