Web Page

$$\scriptsize{\overset{{\large{\textbf{Mark Distribution in Previous GATE}}}}{\begin{array}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|}\hline \textbf{Year}&\textbf{2019}&\textbf{2018}&\textbf{2017-1}&\textbf{2017-2}&\textbf{2016-1}&\textbf{2016-2}&\textbf{Minimum}&\textbf{Average}&\textbf{Maximum} \\\hline\textbf{1 Mark Count}&2&0&2&2&3&3&0&2&3 \\\hline\textbf{2 Marks Count}&2&4&2&3&2&3&2&2.7&4 \\\hline\textbf{Total Marks}&6&8&6&8&7&9&\bf{6}&\bf{7.3}&\bf{9}\\\hline \end{array}}}$$

1
The running time of an algorithm is $O(g(n))$ if and only if its worst-case running time is $O(g(n))$ and its best-case running time is $\Omega(g(n)) \cdot (O= \textit{ big }O)$ its worst-case running time is $\Omega (g(n))$ ... , $(o = \textit{ small } o)$ Choose the correct answer from the options given below: $(a)$ only $(b)$ only $(c)$ only $(d)$ only
2
Given below are two statements: If two variables $V_1$ and $V_2$ are used for clustering, then consider the following statements for $k$ means clustering with $k=3$: Statement $I$: If $V_1$ and $V_2$ have correlation of $1$ the cluster centroid will be in straight ... Statement $II$ are false Statement $I$ is correct but Statement $II$ is false Statement $I$ is incorrect but Statement $II$ is true
3
Four Matrices $M_1, M_2, M_3$ and $M_4$ of dimensions $p \times q$, $q \times r$, $r \times s$ and $s \times t$ ... $t=80$, then the number of scalar multiplications needed is $248000$ $44000$ $19000$ $25000$
1 vote
4
A college professor gives several quizzes during the semester, with negative marking. He has become bored of the usual "Best $M$ out of $N$ quizzes" formula to award marks for internal assessment. Instead, each student will be evaluated based on the ... programming, the score the professor needs to award each student. Describe the space and time complexity of your dynamic programming algorithm.
5
The running time of an algorithm of n interdependent operations is computed with both the asymptotic & amortized analyses. The most accurate running time obtained by Asymptotic analysis Amortized analysis Both analyses None of these
6
The comparison of algorithm types divide-and-conquer (DAC) and dynamic programming (DP) indicates that DP is bottom-up approach and DAC is top-down approach. DP is top-down approach and DAC is bottom-up approach. Both DP and DAC are bottom-up approaches. Both DP and DAC are top-down approaches.
7
Explain how to implement doubly linked lists using only one pointer value $x.np$ per item instead of the usual two (next and prev). Assume that all pointer values can be interpreted as $k$-bit integers, and define $x.np$ to be $x.np=x.next$ $XOR$ $x.prev$, the $k$- ... to implement the $SEARCH$, $INSERT$, and $DELETE$ operations on such a list. Also, show how to reverse such a list in $O(1)$ time.
8
LIST-SEARCH’(L, k) 1 x = L.nil.next 2 while x != L.nil and x.key != k 3 x = x.next 4 return x As written, each loop iteration in the LIST-SEARCH’ procedure requires two tests: one for $x\neq L.nil$ and one for $x.key\neq k$. Show how to eliminate the test for $x\neq L.nil$ in each iteration.
9
Rewrite ENQUEUE and DEQUEUE to detect underflow and overflow of a queue.
10
A probability distribution function $P(x)$ for a random variable $X$ is defined by $P(x) =Pr\{X\leq x\}$.Suppose that we draw a list of $n$ random variables $X_1,X_2,…,X_n$ from a continuous probability distribution function $P$ that is computable in $O(1)$ time. Give an algorithm that sorts these numbers in linear averagecase time.
11
We are given $n$ points in the unit circle, $P_i=(x_i,y_i)$, such that $0<x_i^2+y_i^2<1$ for $i=1,2, .,n$.Suppose that the points are uniformly distributed; that is, the probability of finding a point in any region of the circle is proportional to the ... from the origin. (Hint: Design the bucket sizes in BUCKET-SORT to reflect the uniform distribution of the points in the unit circle.)
12
Use induction to prove that radix sort works. Where does your proof need the assumption that the intermediate sort is stable?
13
Suppose that we were to rewrite the for loop header in line $10$ of the COUNTINGSORT as 10 for j = 1 to A.length Show that the algorithm still works properly. Is the modified algorithm stable?
14
COUNTING-SORT(A, B, k) 1 let C[0, ,k] be a new array 2 for i = 0 to k 3 C[i] = 0 4 for j = 1 to A.length 5 C[A[j]] = C[A[j]] + 1 6 // C[i] now contains the number of elements equal to i . 7 for i =1 to k 8 C[i] = C[i] + C[i-1] 9 // C[i] now contains the ... [C[A[j]]] = A[j] 12 C[A[j]] = C[A[j]] - 1 illustrate the operation of COUNTING-SORT on the array $A=\langle 6,0,2,0,1,3,4,6,1,3,2 \rangle$
15
Suppose that you are given a sequence of $n$ elements to sort.The input sequence consists of $n/k$ subsequences, each containing $k$ elements.The elements in a given subsequence are all smaller than the elements in the succeeding subsequence and larger than the ... this variant of the sorting problem. (Hint: It is not rigorous to simply combine the lower bounds for the individual subsequences.)
16
Show that there is no comparison sort whose running time is linear for at least half of the $n!$ inputs of length $n$.What about a fraction of $1/n$ inputs of length $n$? What about a fraction $1/2^n$?
17
Show that in the recurrence $T(n)=\max_{0<q\leq n-1} (T(q)+T(n-q-1))+\Theta(n)$ $T(n)=\Omega(n^2)$
18
Suppose that the splits at every level of quicksort are in the proportion $1-\alpha$ to $\alpha$, where $0<\alpha\leq1/2$ is a constant. Show that the minimum depth of a leaf in the recursion tree is approximately $-lg\ n /lg\ \alpha$ and the maximum depth is approximately $-lg\ n / lg\ (1-\alpha)$.(Don’t worry about integer round-off.)
19
Banks often record transactions on an account in order of the times of the transactions, but many people like to receive their bank statements with checks listed in order by check number. People usually write checks in order by check number, and merchants ... problem of sorting almost-sorted input. Argue that the procedure INSERTION-SORT would tend to beat the procedure QUICKSORT on this problem.
20
Give an $O(n\lg\ k)$- time algorithm to merge $k$ sorted lists into one sorted list, where $n$ is the total number of elements in all the input lists. (Hint: Use a minheap for $k$-way merging.)
21
Show how to implement a first-in, first-out queue with a priority queue. Show how to implement a stack with a priority queue.
22
Each exchange operation on line $5$ of HEAP-INCREASE-KEY typically requires three assignments. Show how to use the idea of the inner loop of INSERTION-SORT to reduce the three assignments down to just one assignment.
23
Argue the correctness of HEAP-INCREASE-KEY using the following loop invariant: At the start of each iteration of the while loop of lines $4-6$, the subarray $A[1..A.heapsize]$ satisfies the max-heap property, except that there may be one violation$::$ $A[i]$ may be ... $A[a..heapsize]$ satisfies the max-heap property at the time HEAP-INCREASE-KEY is called.
24
Why do we bother setting the key of the inserted node to $-\infty$ in line $2$ of MAX-HEAP-INSERT when the next thing we do is increase its key to the desired value?
25
Write pseudo code for the procedures HEAP-MINIMUM, HEAP-EXTRACT-MIN, HEAP-DECREASE-KEY, and MIN-HEAP-INSERT that implement a min-priority queue with a min-heap.
26
HEAP-INCREASE-KEY(A,i,key) 1 if key < A[i] 2 error new key is smaller than current key 3 A[i] = key 4 while i > 1 and A[parent(i)] < A[i] 5 exchange A[i] with A[parent(i)] 6 i=parent(i) MAX-HEAP-INSERT(A,key) 1 A.heapsize = A.heapsize + 1 2 A[A.heapsize] ... -KEY(A,A.heapsize,key) Illustrate the operation of MAX-HEAP-INSERT$(A,10)$ on the heap $A=\langle 15,13,9,5,12,8,7,4,0,6,2,1 \rangle$.
27
HEAP-EXTRACT-MAX(A) 1 if A.heap-size < 1 2 error “heap underflow” 3 max=A[1] 4 A[1]=A[A.heapsize] 5 A.heapsize=A.heapsize-1 6 MAX-HEAPIFY(A,1) 7 return max Illustrate the operation of HEAP-EXTRACT-MAX on the heap $A=\langle 15,13,9,5,12,8,7,4,0,6,2,1 \rangle$.
Show that when all elements are distinct, the best-case running time of HEAPSORT is $\Omega(n\lg\ n)$.
Show that the worst-case running time of HEAPSORT is $\Omega(n\lg\ n)$.
What is the running time of HEAPSORT on an array $A$ of length $n$ that is already sorted in increasing order? What about decreasing order?