# Recent questions tagged grammar

0 votes
2 answers
1
Which of the following grammars is(are) ambiguous? $s \rightarrow ss \mid asb \mid bsa \mid \lambda$ $s \rightarrow asbs \mid bsas \mid \lambda$ $s \rightarrow aAB \\ A \rightarrow bBb \\ B \rightarrow A \mid \lambda \text{ where } \lambda \text{ denotes empty string}$ Choose the correct answer from the options given below: $(a)$ and $(c)$ only $(b)$ only $(b)$ and $(c)$ only $(a)$ and $(b)$ only
0 votes
2 answers
2
What is the maximum number of reduce moves that can be taken by a bottom-up parser for a grammar with no epsilon and unit production (i.e.,of type $A\to\epsilon$ and $A \to a)$ to parse a string with $n$ tokens? $n/2$ $n-1$ $2n-1$ $2^n$
1 vote
1 answer
3
Which of the following statements is/are false? $S1$: $LR(0)$ grammar and $SLR(1)$ grammar are equivalent $S2$: $LR(1)$ grammar are subset of $LALR(1)$ grammars $S1$ only $S1$ and $S2$ both $S2$ only None of the options
3 votes
5 answers
4
A given grammar is called ambiguous if two or more productions have the same non-terminal on the left hand side a derivation tree has more than one associated sentence there is a sentence with more than one derivation tree corresponding to it brackets are not present in the grammar
2 votes
3 answers
5
Given the grammar $s \rightarrow T ^{\ast} S\ \mid T$ $T \rightarrow U+T\ \mid U$ $U \rightarrow a \mid b$ Which of the following statements is wrong? Grammar is not ambiguous Priority of $+$ over $^{\ast}$ is ensured Right to left evaluation of $^{\ast}$ and $+$ happens None of these
1 vote
3 answers
6
A grammar is defined as $A \rightarrow BC$ $B \rightarrow x \mid Bx$ $C \rightarrow B \mid D$ $D \rightarrow y \mid Ey$ $E \rightarrow z$ The non terminal alphabet of the grammar is $\{A,B,C,D,E\}$ $\{B,C,D,E\}$ $\{A,B,C,D,E,x,y,z\}$ $\{x,y,z\}$
0 votes
0 answers
7
Modify the SDD of Fig. $5.25$ to include superscripts denoted by operator sup between boxes. If box $B_{2}$ is a superscript of box $B_{1}$, then position the baseline of $B_{2}\:0.6$ times the point size of $B_{1}$ above the baseline of $B_{1}.\text{Add}$ the new production and rules to the SDT of Fig. $5.26$.
0 votes
0 answers
8
Modify the SDD of Fig. $5.25$ to include a synthesized attribute $B.le$, the length of a box. The length of the concatenation of two boxes is the sum of the lengths of each. Then add your new rules to the proper positions in the SDT of Fig. $5.26$.
0 votes
0 answers
9
Write L-attributed SDT's analogous to that of Example $5.19$ for the following productions, each of which represents a familiar flow-of-control construct, as in the programming language C. You may need to generate a three address statement to jump to a particular ... have a jump from its middle to the next statement, so it is not sufficient simply to generate code for each statement in order.
0 votes
0 answers
10
Write L-attributed SDD's analogous to that of Example $5.19$ for the following productions, each of which represents a familiar flow-of-control construct, as in the programming language C. You may need to generate a three address statement to jump to a particular ... have a jump from its middle to the next statement, so it is not sufficient simply to generate code for each statement in order.
1 vote
1 answer
11
The following SDT computes the value of a string of $0's$ and $1's$ interpreted as a positive, binary integer. $B\rightarrow B_{1}0\:\{B.val=2\times B_{1}.val\}\mid B_{1}1\:\{B.val=2\times B_{1}.val+1\}\mid 1 \:\{B.val=1\}$ Rewrite this SDT so the underlying grammar is not left recursive, and yet the same value of $B.val$ is computed for the entire input string.
1 vote
1 answer
12
Rewrite the following SDT: $A\rightarrow A\{a\}B\mid AB\{b\}\mid 0$ $B\rightarrow B\{c\}A\mid BA\{d\}\mid 1$ so that the underlying grammar becomes non-left-recursive. Here, $a, b, c$, and $d$ are actions, and $0$ and $1$ are terminals.
0 votes
0 answers
13
We mentioned in Section $5.4.2$ that it is possible to deduce, from the LR state on the parsing stack, what grammar symbol is represented by the state. How would we discover this information?
0 votes
0 answers
14
Below is a grammar for expressions involving operator $+$ and integer or floating-point operands. Floating-point numbers are distinguished by having a decimal point. $E\rightarrow E+T\mid T$ $T\rightarrow num.num\mid num$ Give an SDD to determine the type ... SDD of $(a)$ to translate expressions into postfix notation.Use the unary operator intToFloat to turn an integer into an equivalent float.
0 votes
1 answer
15
This grammar generates binary numbers with a "decimal" point: $S\rightarrow L.L\mid L$ $L\rightarrow LB\mid B$ $B\rightarrow 0\mid 1$ Design an S-attributed SDD to compute $S.val$, the decimal-number value of an input string. For example, the translation of string $101.101$ should be the decimal number $5.625$.
0 votes
0 answers
16
This grammar generates binary numbers with a "decimal" point: $S\rightarrow L.L\mid L$ $L\rightarrow LB\mid B$ $B\rightarrow 0\mid 1$ Design an L-attributed SDD to compute $S.val$ ... be the decimal number $5.625$. Hint: use an inherited attribute $L.side$ that tells which side of the decimal point a bit is on.
3 votes
0 answers
17
Write a $Yacc$ program that takes regular expressions (as defined by the grammar of Question $4.2.2(d)$, but with any single character as an argument, not just a) and produces as output a transition table for a nondeterministic finite automaton recognizing the same language.
0 votes
0 answers
18
Write a $Yacc$ program that takes lists (as defined by the grammar of Question $4.2.2(e)$, but with any single character as an element, not just $a$) and produces as output a linear representation of the same list; i.e., a single list of the elements, in the same order that they appear in the input.
0 votes
0 answers
19
Write a $Yacc$ program that tells whether its input is a palindrome (sequence of characters that read the same forward and backward).
0 votes
0 answers
20
Write a $Yacc$ program that takes boolean expressions as input [as given by the grammar of Question $4.2.2(g)$] and produces the truth value of the expressions.
1 vote
0 answers
21
In Fig. $4.56$ is a grammar for certain statements, similar to that discussed in Question $4.4.12$. Again, $e$ and $s$ are terminals standing for conditional expressions and "other statements," respectively. Build an LR parsing table for this grammar, resolving conflicts in the usual way ... your parser on the following inputs: if e then s ; if e then s end while e do begin s ; if e then s ; end
0 votes
0 answers
22
The following is an ambiguous grammar for expressions with $n$ binary, infix operators, at $n$ different levels of precedence: $E\rightarrow E\theta_{1}E\mid E\theta_{2}E\mid \cdot\cdot\cdot E\theta_{n}E\mid(E)\mid id$ ... of the tables for the two (ambiguous and unambiguous) grammars compare? What does that comparison tell you about the use of ambiguous expression grammars?
0 votes
1 answer
23
Show that the following grammar $S\rightarrow Aa\mid bAc\mid Bc\mid bBa$ $A\rightarrow d$ $B\rightarrow d$ is LR(1) but not LALR(1).
0 votes
1 answer
24
Show that the following grammar $S\rightarrow Aa\mid bAc\mid dc\mid bda$ $A\rightarrow d$ is LALR(1) but not SLR(1).
0 votes
0 answers
25
For the grammar of Exercise $4.7.1$, use Algorithm $4.63$ to compute the collection of LALR sets of items from the kernels of the $LR(0)$ sets of items.
0 votes
0 answers
26
Repeat Exercise $4.7.1$ for each of the (augmented) grammars of Exercise $4.2.2(a)-(g)$.
0 votes
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27
Construct the canonical LR, and LALR sets of items for the grammar $S\rightarrow S S + \mid S S \ast \mid a$ of Question $4.2.1$.
0 votes
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28
We suggested that individual items could be regarded as states of a nondeterministic finite automaton, while sets of valid items are the states of a deterministic finite automaton (see the box on "Items as States of an NFA" in Section $4.6.5$ ... cases, the subset construction applied to the NFA that comes from the valid items for a grammar produces the $LR(0)$ sets of items.
0 votes
0 answers
29
Consider the family of grammars $G_{n}$, defined by: $S\rightarrow A_{i}b_{i}$ for $1\leq i\leq n$ $A_{i} \rightarrow a_{j} A_{i}\mid a_{j}$ for $1\leq i,j\leq n$ and $i\neq j$ Show that: $G_{n}$, has $2n^{2}-n$ productions. $G_{n}$, has $2^{n} + n^{2} + n$ sets of $LR(0)$ items. $G_{n}$ is $SLR(1)$. What does this analysis say about how large $LR$ parsers can get?
0 votes
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30
Show that the following grammar: $S\rightarrow SA\mid A$ $A\rightarrow a$ is SLR(1) but not LL(1).