Webpage for Mathematical Logic

Important Question Types:

1. Checking validity of First Order Logic Statements
2. Checking validity of Propositional Logic

# Recent questions tagged mathematical-logic 0 votes
1 answer
1
Consider the following statements about propositional formulas. $\left ( p\wedge q \right )\rightarrow r$ and $\left ( p \rightarrow r \right )\wedge \left ( q\rightarrow r \right )$ are $\textit{not }$ ... Depending on the values $p$ and $q$, $\text{(i)}$ can be either true or false, while $\text{(ii)}$ is always false.
3 votes
3 answers
2
Choose the correct choice(s) regarding the following proportional logic assertion $S$: $S: (( P \wedge Q) \rightarrow R) \rightarrow (( P \wedge Q) \rightarrow (Q \rightarrow R))$ $S$ is neither a tautology nor a contradiction $S$ is a tautology $S$ is a contradiction The antecedent of $S$ is logically equivalent to the consequent of $S$
1 vote
4 answers
3
Let $p$ and $q$ be two propositions. Consider the following two formulae in propositional logic. $S_1: (\neg p\wedge(p\vee q))\rightarrow q$ $S_2: q\rightarrow(\neg p\wedge(p\vee q))$ Which one of the following choices is correct? Both $S_1$ and $S_2$ are tautologies ... tautology but $S_2$ is not a tautology $S_1$ is not a tautology but $S_2$ is a tautology Neither $S_1$ nor $S_2$ is a tautology
1 vote
2 answers
4
Which of the following pairs of propositions are not logically equivalent? $((p \rightarrow r) \wedge (q \rightarrow r))$ and $((p \vee q) \rightarrow r)$ $p \leftrightarrow q$ and $(\neg p \leftrightarrow \neg q)$ $((p \wedge q) \vee (\neg p \wedge \neg q))$ and $p \leftrightarrow q$ $((p \wedge q) \rightarrow r)$ and $((p \rightarrow r) \wedge (q \rightarrow r))$
0 votes
1 answer
5
If $f(x)=x$ is my friend, and $p(x) =x$ is perfect, then correct logical translation of the statement “some of my friends are not perfect” is ______ $\forall _x (f(x) \wedge \neg p(x))$ $\exists _x (f(x) \wedge \neg p(x))$ $\neg (f(x) \wedge \neg p(x))$ $\exists _x (\neg f(x) \wedge \neg p(x))$
0 votes
1 answer
6
What kind of clauses are available in conjunctive normal form? Disjunction of literals Disjunction of variables Conjunction of literals Conjunction of variables
1 vote
2 answers
7
Which of the following is FALSE? $Read\ \wedge as\ AND, \vee\ as\ OR, \sim as\ NOT, \rightarrow$ as one way implication and $\leftrightarrow$ as two way implication? $((x\rightarrow y)\wedge x)\rightarrow y$ $((\sim x\rightarrow y)\wedge (\sim x\wedge \sim y))\rightarrow x$ $(x\rightarrow (x\vee y))$ $((x\vee y)\leftrightarrow (\sim x\vee \sim y))$
0 votes
4 answers
8
In propositional logic, which of the following is equivalent to $p \rightarrow q$? $\sim p\rightarrow q$ $\sim p \vee q$ $\sim p \vee \sim q$ $p\rightarrow \sim q$
1 vote
2 answers
9
Which of the following statements is false? $(P\land Q)\lor(\sim P\land Q)\lor(P \land \sim Q)$ is equal to $\sim Q\land \sim P$ $(P\land Q)\lor(\sim P\land Q)\lor(P \wedge \sim Q)$ is equal to $Q\lor P$ $(P\wedge Q)\lor (\sim P\land Q)\lor(P \wedge \sim Q)$ is equal to $Q\lor (P\wedge \sim Q)$ $(P\land Q)\lor(\sim P\land Q)\lor (P \land \sim Q)$ is equal to $P\lor (Q\land \sim P)$
0 votes
3 answers
10
Which of the following propositions is tautology? $(p\lor q)\to q$ $p\lor (q\to p)$ $p\lor (p\to q)$ Both (B) and (C)
0 votes
3 answers
11
Which one is the correct translation of the following statement into mathematical logic? “None of my friends are perfect.” $\neg\:\exists\:x(p(x)\land q(x))$ $\exists\:x(\neg\:p(x)\land q(x))$ $\exists\:x(\neg\:p(x)\land\neg\:q(x))$ $\exists\:x(p(x)\land\neg\:q(x))$
0 votes
0 answers
12
The proposition ~ q ∨ p is equivalent to :
0 votes
1 answer
13
Which of the following statements is true? The sentence $S$ is a logical consequence of $S_{1},\dots,S_{n}$ if and only if $S_{1}\wedge S_{2} \wedge \dots \wedge S_{n}\rightarrow S$ is satisfiable. The sentence $S$ is a logical consequence of $S_{1},\dots,S_{n}$ if ... logical consequence of $S_{1},\dots,S_{n}$ if and only if $S_{1}\wedge S_{2}\wedge \dots \wedge S_{n}\wedge S$ is inconsistent.
0 votes
3 answers
14
Match the following : ...
13 votes
5 answers
15
Which one of the following predicate formulae is NOT logically valid? Note that $W$ is a predicate formula without any free occurrence of $x$. $\forall x (p(x) \vee W) \equiv \forall x \: ( px) \vee W$ $\exists x(p(x) \wedge W) \equiv \exists x \: p(x) \wedge W$ ... $\exists x(p(x) \rightarrow W) \equiv \forall x \: p(x) \rightarrow W$
5 votes
3 answers
16
Given that $B(a)$ means “$a$ is a bear” $F(a)$ means “$a$ is a fish” and $E(a,b)$ means “$a$ eats $b$” Then what is the best meaning of $\forall x [F(x) \to \forall y(E(y,x)\rightarrow b(y))]$ Every fish is eaten by some bear Bears eat only fish Every bear eats fish Only bears eat fish
1 vote
2 answers
17
In the land of Twitter, there are two kinds of people: knights (also called outragers), who always tell the truth, and knaves (also called trolls), who always lie. It so happened that a person with handle @anand tweeted something offensive. It was not known ... Suspect $3:$ My lawyer always tells the truth. Which of the above suspects are innocent, and which are guilty? Explain your reasoning.
3 votes
1 answer
18
“Not every satisfiable logic is valid” Representation of it will be $1)\sim \left ( \forall S(x)\rightarrow V(x) \right )$ or $2)\sim \left ( \forall S(x)\vee V(x) \right )$ Among $1)$ and $2)$, which one is correct? and why?
2 votes
1 answer
19
Read the statements: All women are entrepreneurs. Some women are doctors. Which of the following conclusions can be logically inferred from the above statements? All women are doctors All doctors are entrepreneurs All entrepreneurs are women Some entrepreneurs are doctors Why here $2)$ ... ans?? Is it because , if we make set of doctor as 0, then All doctors are entrepreneurs is meaningless.